Latihan Dalam Kumpulan

Latihan Perdagangan


Howard Gardner, a professor at Harvard University has identified eight intelligences:

1) Verbal/ Linguistic
2) Mathematical/Logical
3) Visual/Spatial
4) Musical/Rhythmic
5) Bodily/Kinesthetic
6) Naturalist
7) Interpersonal
8) Intrapersonal


Mathematical/ Logical Intelligence

Encourage the use of experiments and their data records, logic puzzles, graphs, charts, diagrams, geometric designs, comparisons, analysis, contrasts, prediction, story grids, classifications and Venn diagrams, among other projects.

1)          Group Activity            :  Pass the number, Please
           Materials                     : None
           Purpose                       : To see whether student alert in this game

a)      Ask students to sit in a circle. Explain that they will work with numbers in pattern determined by them, one person says a number, the next repeats that number and adds a second one in the sequences of his or her choice, the third player repeats the first two numbers and adds a third in the sequence. Play continues around the circle.
b)      When a player forgets the sequence or leaves out a number, he or she is out.
c)      When it seems that the players have caught on the sequence, a player may change it. This player must player must make it clear what the new sequence is. Otherwise, both this player and the next player are out. If you wish, you may allow the new sequence to be announced. The player may shout “Change!” before beginning a new sequence.
d)     Play a round for 5 minutes or so. Then play a second round.

Example: 2 4 6 8 10 12 (change) 13 14 15 16 17 18 (change) 20 22 24 26 28
1) Focus on the moments of change.
    How did you feel when making the change?
 2) How did you feel when the next person failed to see the new sequence?

2)      Group Activity            :  Class-O-Graph
Materials                      : List of the names of all the students in the class,
                                      a sheet of graph paper for each student, pens or pencils.
Purpose                           : To see whether student have curiosity about their classmate.

a)      Ask students to name characteristics that distinguish one person from another- other than physical appearance. Write their suggestion on the board. These may include size of family, favorite sport and so on. Then ask students to choose one characteristic that they would like to find out about their classmates.
b)      Give each student a copy of the class list. Student should ask their classmates how they fit into the category and then record the answers on their class list. Collect the papers.
            Return papers to the students with a sheet of graph paper and 
            ask them to graph what they learned from their survey.


Visual/ Spatial Intelligence

Encourage viewing and creation movies, book covers, cartoons and comic strips, scrapbooks, bulletin boards, 3-D diagrams and models, masks, costumes, displays, dioramas, family trees, filmstrips, game boards, maps, stained glass, models, murals, exhibits, bumpers stickers and flips books among others.

1)      Group Activity           : Partner Drawing
Materials                     : Plain white paper, one crayon for each student
Purpose                       : To see whether student can work together in a
                          group without using words

a)      Divide students into pairs. They will be drawing together. Ask each student to choose one crayon. Tell pairs to place the paper on the table between them.
b)      Explain that they will be given a category and without talking, they will take turns drawing an example of the category one stroke at a time. Keep the categories general enough so the students have some flexibility in choosing what to draw. Allow 5 minutes for this activity.
c)      Create a gallery of the drawings.

 The category is flowers. The first student has a yellow crayon, the second has a red one. The first student makes one long straight line. The second student draws a curve out from middle of the line. The first student decides this could be the beginning of the leaf and connects it with another curved line going back to the straight line. This continues.

Discussion: 1) How did you and your partner manage to work 
                      without using words?
                  2) Did you enjoy this activity? Where you and your partner 
                      surprised at your finished drawing?
                      How was it different from what you each had in mind at 

2)      Group Activity           : Chain of links
Materials                     : Strips of construction paper, 
                                     1 inch wide by 9 inches long, 
                                     glue or tape and markers.
Purpose                       : To motivate student to complete the game

a)      Put a basket or plastic container of the strips of construction paper on a desk or table where all the students have access to it. Each time a student reaches a goal, the student records the goal on a strip, along with his or her name and adds the strip to the chain of strips being formed by the class.
b)      As the chain grows, hang it around the room so students can see their group progress.

3)      Group Activity            :  Eye to eye
Materials                     :  None
Purpose                      :  To see whether student have curiosity about their partner
                                     in the group           

a)      Pair up students and ask them to stand facing each other. Explain that for 3 minutes they are to study their partners and find five things they have in common with their partners and five things that are different. Change partner and repeat.
b)      Ask the students to name similarities and differences and record them on a Venn diagram.

Discussion: 1) What were some similarities? Some differences?
                  2) Were there things that were both different and similar?



Musical/ Rhythmic Intelligence

Encourage listening to or the creation of limericks, ballads, choral readings, original songs, raps recordings, sound effects, environmental sounds, song collections, Morse code, instrumental or vocal performances and so on.

1)      Group Activity            :  Class Song

Materials                     :  Paper and pencils

Purpose                       :  To see whether student will cooperate each other in the


            SESSION A

a)      Arrange the class into groups of 4. Distribute paper and pencils.

b)      Tell the class that each group is to create a class song. The only rules are that the song is positive and does not put anyone down. You may add other rules about length, rhyming, specific content you want included and so on. Circulate among the groups as they work. Allow 15 minutes for the first “creative” session.


At the beginning of session B, tell students to finalize their song and practice it. Allow 20 or 30 minutes for this activity.

            SESSION C

At the third session, ask each group to perform their song. If you wish the class could vote on the best song and adopt it as the class song for the year,

            Discussion: 1) What was the best thing about this activity?
       2) Were there any problems getting started? 
           What were they?
            How did you group handle them?

2)      Group Activity           :  Mood Music
      Materials                     :  A sheet of paper numbered 1 to 10, pencils, a tape of 
                                           excerpt from several different pieces of classical music,
       Purpose                      :  To see whether student alert with the mood of music

a)      With the students, generate a list of moods and emotions. Write the list on the board. If some of the words are unfamiliar, discuss their meaning (e.g: sad, happy, silly, cheerful, lonely,etc).
b)      Have students listen to several different music selections. As they listen, they should determine the mood of the music and write the mood after the number of the selection on their numbered sheet of paper.
c)      Play the music, stopping briefly between selections to allow students to write down the name of the mood or feeling the music presented.

The discussion for this activity can be a simple sharing of answers for each piece, or lengthier discussion of reasons for choosing a certain mood.

3)      Group Activity            :  Musical Chair Cooperation
      Materials                     :  Chairs, music
Purpose                       :  To see whether student will cooperate each other

a)      In this version of musical chairs, the group wins or loses. The object of the activity is to end up with all students seated. It is the group’s job to see that everyone has a place to sit, even if it’s on someone’s lap.
b)      Arrange the chairs in a circle. There should be one chair fewer than the number of students.
c)      Begin the music as the students walk around the circle. Stop the music unexpectedly.
d)     Before begin the music again, remove another chair.
e)      Continue this routine until the students cannot find a way for everyone to have a seat.

Discussion: 1) What was different between this game musical chairs
                      and the one you usually play?
                    2) How did the new rules change the feeling of the game? 
                        Which do you prefer? Why?

Bodily/ Kinesthetic Intelligence

Encourage creating collages, cooking, computer programming, displays, jigsaw puzzles, sculptures, origami, scavenger hunts, weaving, stitchery, rubbings, dances, carvings, folk dances, docudrama, models and stage settings.

1)      Group Activity           : Walking Warm-ups

Material                       : None

Purpose                       : To see whether student alert with the direction given

Make sure there is room for students to walk about. Tell them to follow your directions for walking. There is only one rule: do not bump or touch other students.

Possible Directions:

·         Are exhausted

·         Have just heard wonderful news

·         Are carrying a heavy box

·         Are carrying a heavy suitcase

·         Are bitterly cold

·         Are very old

·         Have just learned how to walk
·         Are 10 feet tall
·         Are working on ice
·         Are walking on hot sand

Discussion: 1) How did you show your feelings without word?
                   2) Are voice and expression always necessary to
                      get other  to understand what you are really mean?

2)      Group Activity           : All Together Now
Material                       : None
Purpose                       : To see perseverance of student work together

a)      Ask the students to sit on the floor in a circle and take hold of the rope circle.
b)      Tell the students that the object of the game is for everyone to pull back on the rope and then raise themselves to a standing position when hear the signal “All Together Now”. If one student falls, the group must start over.

3)      Group Activity            : Infinite Circle
Material                       : Piece of flat board (4 x 4 works best) that is
                                     4 to 8 inches in length, for each student
Purpose                       : To see whether student have accountability to do the
                                      activity given

a)      This activity can be done by the entire class. From a circle, with the boards in the middle.
b)      Direct everyone to select one piece of board each and give them these directions:
                                                        i.            Take your back to the circle. Hold hands with the people on either side of you
                                                      ii.            Stand on your board to the left with both feet.
                                                    iii.            Step on your board to the left with both feet.
                                                    iv.            Step two boards to the left with both feet.
                                                      v.            Then step to the left with your left to the left your foot and share the next board with the right foot of the person to your left.
c)      People who lose their balance should step off. Otherwise, they could pull others down

Discussion: 1) What was the hardest thing about this? Was it hard to
                       move off you “ home board” ?
                      2) How did the person to the left or right affect you?

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Encourage journals, diaries, personal anecdotes, autobiographies, analysis, reflections, guided imagery, predictions and independent projects.

1)      Group Activity            :  Favourites
Materials                     :  Paper and pencils
Purpose                       :  To see whether student have integrity or not

a)      Write a category and five or six examples on the board (eg: in the category of food- nasi lemak, laksa, mee goreng, pizza, kek, satay could be listed). Then ask the class for another category and examples. Students might be interested in food, specials projects, movie, TV show and so on.
b)      Using the class category and examples, each student lists the examples in order of individual preference.
c)      Give the students 5 minutes to look for other students with lists similar to theirs. When the time is up, vote to see which examples were the most popular.
Discussion: 1) What causes people to have different tastes?
                     2)  Are these differences always a good thing?
                          Can they sometimes cause problems?

2)      Group Activity            :  Go- Around
Materials                     :  None
Purpose                       :  To see whether student have integrity or not

Have students stand or sit in a circle. Ask them to answer a question, one at a time.
Go around the circle. (students always have the option to pass)

·         What word says how you feel right now?
·         What word describes the person who is your ideal?

·         What about yourself are you proudest of?
·         What is the best thing you’ve ever done?
·         What is something that makes you happy?
·         What is a favorite possession of yours?

Discussion: 1) Were you surprised that other students gave
                         the same answer that you gave?
                    2) Which question received the greatest number of
             different answers?


Interpersonal Intelligence

Encourage involvement in commercials, plays, friendly letters, role-playing, group research, cooperative sculpture, brainstorming, debates, group problem solving and reenactments.

1)      Group Activity            : Truth Detector

Material                       : None

Purpose                       : To see the creativity of student

Have students introduce themselves to the class. They should tell some of their likes and dislikes, favourite things to do and so on. It is important they include one thing in their introduction that is lie. The rest of the class should listen carefully and try to determine the lie.

Discussion:  1) Were some people better at convincing you
                         than others?

                     2) Why were some people better able to convince you 

                         than others?

                     3) What were the best lies? Why?
                     4) Why do you think truthfulness is important in life?

1)      Group Activity           : What do you think?
Material                       : Paper and pencil for each group, object
Purpose                     : To see the creativity of students

a)      Divide students into groups of 4 to 6. Groups brainstorm uses  for a certain object. Each group should choose a recorder to write down their ideas. Because this is brainstorming, all ideas should be considered and written down.
b)      Select an item. Show it to the whole group. Allow 3 to 5 minutes for each brainstorming session. Ask the recorder or some other member of the group to share the group’s list.
Suggested Items:
Candle, ruler, paper clip, scissors, pencil, nail, screw, hammer, spoon, chair, eraser, toothbrush

Discussion: 1) How many different ideas did the separate
      groups come up with?
   2) What was the most unusual use?


Naturalist Intelligence

Encourage nature walks, animal reports, nature collections, classroom pet care, gardening projects and identification scrapbooks.

1)      Group Activity          : Animal Search

Material                       : Animal Name cards (make enough cards for the

                                      the number of students-there should be four cards

                                      for each animal)

Purpose                       : To see alertness of student

a)      Tell students they will give an Animal Name card. Their job is to find other students with the same animal. They may only use sounds and movements for clues. No talking!

b)      Give each person an Animal Name card. Give students one minute to look at heir cards and plan how to give clues to other students as to which animal they are looking for.

c)      Tell students to walk around, giving clues. When one student finds another with the same animal, they should link arms and continue looking for others with the same animal.

Discussion:    1) Did it take long to find someone with your animal?
                         What made it difficult or easy?
                     2) What animal was the most difficult to give clues for?

2)      Group Activity           : Season Scenes
Material                       : None
Purpose                       : To see creativity of student

a)      Divide the class into groups of 4 to 6. Ask them to choose a season of the year:
v  Winter
v  Spring
v  Summer
v  Fall
Their task is to create a tableau-or frozen picture-of the season.
b)      Allow time for students to brainstorm about characteristics of the chosen season and decide how to show these. Also, allow time for the groups to practice.
c)      Let the groups present their scenes so the class can guess which season is being shown.

Discussion: 1) How did your group decide which season to show?
                       2) Was it difficult to think of things to show in
                           your tableau? Why?